Table of Contents
This presentation demonstrates some interesting ways of enhancing the syndetic structure of the online catalog using the display capabilities of the WebPAC in conjunction with MARC tags (see figure 1) and Innopac field group tags (see figure 2) in authority records. First a bit of background: While most of the authority control at Dartmouth is outsourced, the bibliographic control department does create local authority records for headings originating, for the most part, among the approximately 2700 Special Collections items catalogued annually - most of which derive from either the extensive Dartmouth College History Collection or original manuscripts. These headings are specific to Dartmouth and include college committees, departments, and organizations. Local authority records are created only when no records for a given heading exist in the national Name Authority File (NAF), a collection of authority records contributed by the Library of Congress and authorized NACO (Name Authority Cooperative Project) participants. These local records are created manually, directly in the Innopac system, and are not contributed to the NAF. Since the function of the local authority record is simply to establish a given heading in the catalog and to provide cross-references, these records generally contain less information than a full-fledged LC or NACO authority record.
However, authority records, local or otherwise, can be enhanced by adding additional cross references to the record. The "Innovative Links" heralded in the title of this presentation are based on three different categories of "see also" references:
1. Parallel - where the relationship between headings is one of equivalency: an author writing under two or more names or earlier/later forms of a corporate body name, e.g. Canadian Livestock Feed Board of Canada see also earlier name Livestock Feed Board of Canada
2. Hierarchical - where a narrower heading is linked to a broader heading and vice versa: e.g., the broader heading Persons, referring to such related narrower headings as Celebrities and Vegetarians. Another example is of a hierarchical subject to name cross-reference, where a search on the subject heading Memorials-Virginia leads to a see also reference for the more specific corporate name heading Arlington House.
3. Associative - where headings are linked to each other through some commonality that is neither parallel nor hierarchical: e.g., related subject headings, Librarians and Libraries or Cookies and Web Servers; also names of individuals linked to a corporate body - name headings for Maurice, Barry, and Robin Gibb and the Bee Gees.
The presentation focused on three particular areas of enhancing authority records for local use:
1. Subject to Name References - which link broader terms to specific name headings: e.g., College buildings-New Hampshire-Hanover see also Rollins Chapel (Hanover, N.H.) While there are several thousand of these in the NAF, this practice has been discontinued by LC. Individual libraries may want to continue the practice in order to enhance the information contained in their local OPACs.
2. Local Public Notes - which provide information to patrons about the name or subject heading at hand: e.g. the local name authority record for Webster, Caroline Le Roy, 1797-1882 contains the following 680 field, Caroline Le Roy Webster was the second wife of Daniel Webster, which displays in the public catalog, as well as 550 field containing the subject heading,
Politicians' spouses-United States. (see previous paragraph)
3. Local Scope Notes - which are "provided when needed to ensure consistency of subject usage by specifying the range of subject matter to which a heading is applied in the Library's catalogs, by drawing necessary distinctions between related headings, or by stating which of several meanings of a heading is the one to which its use in the Library's catalog is limited." [Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)] One of the ways these are used at Dartmouth is to clarify or explain particular headings. For example, Greek letter societies is LCSH's authorized heading for fraternities and sororities. Since this is not the terminology that most library users would employ, Dartmouth catalogers added the following 680 field, Here are entered works on Coed, Fraternity, and Sorority (CFS) organizations at Dartmouth to the local authority record, Greek letter societies-New Hampshire-Hanover to clarify the scope of the heading.
Looking towards the future, there are a few things that would make these local authority records more efficient. For example, currently there are no local MARC tags for authority data defined in MARC 21. It would be helpful if the MARC Standards Office were to develop a local tag scheme so that a universal standard could be applied, rather than having to rely on the use of $5 field. Also, currently scope notes only display for headings which are linked to subject headings. It would be extremely helpful if the WebPAC could display the 680 field when it occurs in any type of authority record. And finally, scope notes only display in the WebPAC when a heading is linked to more than one cross-reference. It would be nice to have the scope note display even on the single see also redirect screen.
Finally, the presenter wanted to stress that his intention was simply to demonstrate some capabilities of possible enhancements to the syndetic structure of the WebPAC. Most libraries do not have the luxury or resources to undertake mass projects of enhancing authority records for local use, or creating elaborate local authority records, and Dartmouth certainly falls into this category. However, they have been experimenting with these procedures for some of their special collections materials and are very pleased with the results.
|Authority Records-MARC Tags|
|100/110/111/130/150/151 – Established heading|
|260 – Complex see from reference|
|360 -- Complex see also from reference|
|400/410/411/430/450/451 -- See from reference|
|500/510/511/530/550/551 -- See also from reference|
|667 – General note|
|670 – Source note|
|680 – Public note|
|Authority Records-Field Group Tags|
|a NAME AUTHR (100,110,111)|
|b NAME SEE (400,410,411)|
|c NAME SA (500,510,511)|
|d SUBJ AUTHR (150, 151)|
|e SUBJ SEE (450, 451)|
|f SUBJ SA (550, 551)|
|t UNIF TITLE (130)|
|u UT SEE FRM (430)|
|v UT SA FRM (530)|
|n NOTE (670, 680, 681)|